Fair Oaks, Battle of, or Battle of Seven Pines, May 31-June 1, 1862, a battle of the Civil War. In this engagement of the Peninsular Campaign, fought about seven miles (11 km) east of Richmond, Virginia, a Confederate attack was repulsed by Union troops. The Confederates retreated toward Richmond, but were not pursued.

The Battle of Fair Oaks was fought between 42,000 Union troops, commanded by General George B. McClellan, and a nearly equal number of Confederates, led by General Joseph E. Johnston. Johnston was severely wounded and was replaced on the second day by General Robert E. Lee, who held the eastern command for the remainder of the war. Union losses were about 5,000 and Confederate losses were more than 6,000.