Shiloh, Battle of, or Battle of Pittsburg Landing , April 6–7, 1862, a decisive battle of the American Civil War. Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston, driven out of Kentucky and most of Tennessee, gathered an army at Corinth, Mississippi, for a counteroffensive. Twenty miles (32 km) away, in Tennessee, camped around Shiloh Church, a Union army led by General U. S. Grant was awaiting the arrival of reinforcements under General Don Carlos Buell. Johnston's strategy was to defeat Grant before Buell could arrive.

The Confederate troops caught Grant's army off guard and almost won the battle on the first day, although Johnston was killed. The next day the Union troops, supported by Buell's army, which had arrived during the night, defeated the Confederates, then commanded by General P. G. T. Beauregard.

The battle, one of the bloodiest of the war, cost the Union about 13,000 casualties out of about 55,000; the Confederacy, about 10,000 out of about 40,000. The defeat of the Confederates prevented the South from regaining Kentucky and Tennessee and assured further Union advances in the west.

The site of the battlefield is a national military park.