Pope, John (1822–1892), a United States army officer. As commander of the Army of Virginia during the Civil War, he badly misjudged Confederate movements at the Second Battle of Bull Run, August 28–30, 1862, and was decisively defeated. Pope blamed General Fitz-John Porter, one of his officers.
Pope was born in Louisville, Kentucky, and graduated from West Point in 1842. He served with General Zachary Taylor during the Mexican War (1846–48). He was made captain in 1856 and brigadier general in 1861.
In March and April of 1862, Pope successfully commanded the Army of the Mississippi in operations against Confederate defenses at New Madrid, Missouri, and Island No. 10 in the Mississippi River, and he was promoted to major general. In May, 1862, Pope and his army took part in the siege of Corinth, Mississippi, under the command of Major General Henry Halleck.
After his defeat at Second Bull Run, Pope was relieved of command and sent to the Department of the Northwest where he ably directed campaigns against Sioux Indians. In January, 1865, he was given command of the Division of Missouri. From 1867 until he retired in 1886 he commanded various districts and departments.