Vermont was occupied as early as 9000 B.C. The first known inhabitants were Eskimos, who arrived thousands of years ago. Archeologists have found traces of their culture at several sites. They were succeeded by prehistoric Indians called Pre-Algonquians, who engaged in fishing and hunting. Around 2000 B.C., they were driven out by Indians referred to as the Old Algonquians, who inhabited the area until about the 13th century A.D. When the French arrived in the region in the 17th century, they encountered the Abnakis and the Mahicans (both Algonquian tribes) and tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy.

Important dates in Vermont
1609 Samuel de Champlain claimed the Vermont region for France.
1724 Massachusetts established Fort Dummer, the first permanent white settlement in the Vermont region.
1763 England gained control of Vermont.
1775 Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in the Revolutionary War.
1777 Vermont declared itself an independent republic.
1791 Vermont became the 14th state on March 4.
1823 The opening of the Champlain Canal created a water route from Vermont to New York City.
1881 Chester A. Arthur, born in Fairfield, became the 21st president of the United States.
1923 Calvin Coolidge, born in Plymouth Notch, became the 30th president of the United States.
1962 Philip H. Hoff became the first Democrat to win election as governor of Vermont since 1853.
1970 The Vermont legislature passed the Environmental Control Law. This law permitted Vermont to limit major developments that could harm the state's environment.
1984 Madeleine M. Kunin became the first woman to be elected governor of Vermont.
2000 Vermont became the first state to allow a civil union, similar to marriage, for two people of the same sex.