Minerva in Roman mythology, the goddess of wisdom. She was regarded as the personification of the faculty of thinking. According to tradition, she sprang fully armored from the head of Jupiter. She shared with Jupiter and Juno a temple on the Capitoline Hill in Rome.

Minerva was also the patroness of useful and ornamental arts. She presided over agriculture, navigation, spinning, weaving, and embroidery. To punish the impudence of Arachne, a mortal maid who boasted she could outdo her at weaving, Minerva transformed her into a spider.

In time Minerva became identified with the Greek Athena. She then figured as the goddess of defensive war, contrasted with aggressive Mars.