Triumph, an ancient Roman honor accorded victorious generals on their return to Rome. The general and his soldiers entered the city in a ceremonial procession. They were preceded by floats depicting their victories; white oxen; wagons loaded with spoils; and captives, including defeated rulers, in chains. The triumphant general, wearing purple and carrying laurel, rode in a chariot. The procession moved to the Capitoline Hill, where the oxen were sacrificed and the laurel placed on the altar of Jupiter. The most important captives were usually put to death. Triumphal celebrations often lasted for several days.
Caesar, a title that came from the name of a Roman family. The first important member of the family was the soldier and statesman Gaius Julius Caesar.
Rome and the Roman Empire, the most powerful state of the ancient world. It grew from an Italian village to a city-state and into an organization that ruled the shores of the Mediterranean and much of western Europe.