Susa, the capital of ancient Elam and, later, of the Persian Empire. Susa, called Shushan in the Bible, was located in what is now southwestern Iran. Archeologists have found numerous remains there and believe that the site was occupied from about 4000 B.C. At an early date Susa had contact with the Mesopotamian cities to the west; a Babylonian stele (inscribed stone slab) bearing the Code of Hammurabi was found at Susa.

Cyrus I, who united the Persians, made Susa his capital. The Persian king Darius I constructed the Royal Highway stretching from Susa to Sardis, in western Asia Minor. Susa was rebuilt a number of times after being destroyed by invading armies, but finally disappeared.