Baliol, or Balliol, the name of an Anglo-Norman family prominent in Scottish history. Guido, or Guy, de Baliol, a Norman baron, crossed to England in 1066 with William the Conqueror. Historically important members of this family include the following:
(died 1269) was a regent of Scotland during the youth of King Alexander III. He founded Balliol College, Oxford.
(1249–1315), his son, was king of Scotland, 1292–96. Baliol's claim to the vacant throne had been supported by Edward I of England. Later Baliol resented Edward's overlordship and made an alliance with Edward's enemy, Philip IV (the Fair) of France. Edward invaded Scotland and Baliol was captured in 1296. He died, an exile, in France.
(died 1363?), son of King John de Baliol, in 1332 seized the throne from David II, Robert (I) Bruce's son. Baliol was supported by Edward II of England, to whom he became a vassal. Although most of the Scots opposed him, Baliol reigned, except during 1341–46, when David II again ruled, until 1356, when Edward removed him from the throne.