Agincourt, Battle of, October 25, 1415, an English victory over France in the Hundred Years' War. It was fought near the village of Agincourt, 33 miles (53 km) west of Arras in northern France. Henry V of England, reasserting his claim to the French throne held by Charles VI, invaded France and took Harfleur. By marching toward Calais, Henry provoked an attack by the much larger French army under the Constable Charles d'Albret. The French depended on armored knights, and at this period plate armor had become very heavy. Bogged down in mud, the knights were slaughtered by English archers.
The control of Jerusalem and conflicts between Islam and the Western world may read like topics from today's headlines. But they were also at the heart of the Crusades.
Cook, James (1728 - 1779), a British navigator. Captain Cook accurately charted vast regions of the South Pacific; provided a basis for England's claim to Australia and New Zealand; and developed a diet that prevented scurvy among seamen.