Hohenlinden, Battle of, December 3, 1800, a battle of the French Revolutionary Wars and one of the first battles of the Napoleonic Wars. At Hohenlinden, a Bavarian village 19 miles (31 km) east of Munich, the French under Jean Victor Moreau defeated the Austrians under Archduke John. Twenty thousand Austrians were killed, wounded, or captured, with only 5,000 French casualties. Moreau's victory left Vienna undefended. Austria made peace at Lunéville in February, 1801, withdrawing from the second coalition against France.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.
Renaissance, in a broad sense, the culturally fruitful period of transition from the medieval era into the beginning of modern civilization in Europe.