Marengo, Battle of, June 14, 1800, a French victory in the Napoleonic Wars. It was fought in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy. Baron Melas, the Austrian commander, launched a surprise attack with 30,000 troops against 23,000 French led by Napoleon Bonaparte. The French were near defeat until the arrival of 6,000 reinforcements. Melas agreed the next day to remove Austrian troops from most of northern Italy.
Renaissance, in a broad sense, the culturally fruitful period of transition from the medieval era into the beginning of modern civilization in Europe.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.