Marengo, Battle of, June 14, 1800, a French victory in the Napoleonic Wars. It was fought in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy. Baron Melas, the Austrian commander, launched a surprise attack with 30,000 troops against 23,000 French led by Napoleon Bonaparte. The French were near defeat until the arrival of 6,000 reinforcements. Melas agreed the next day to remove Austrian troops from most of northern Italy.
The control of Jerusalem and conflicts between Islam and the Western world may read like topics from today's headlines. But they were also at the heart of the Crusades.
Cook, James (1728 - 1779), a British navigator. Captain Cook accurately charted vast regions of the South Pacific; provided a basis for England's claim to Australia and New Zealand; and developed a diet that prevented scurvy among seamen.