Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122–1204), queen of Henry II of England and mother of two kings, Richard I and John. She was a proud and forceful queen who took an active part in politics. Eleanor became duchess of Aquitaine in 1137. In the same year, she married Louis VII of France. The marriage was annulled in 1152. Later that year, Eleanor married Henry of Anjou, who became Henry II of England in 1154. She later turned against Henry, largely because of his infidelity, and in 1173 Eleanor took part in an attempt to unseat him. The attempt failed and Eleanor was arrested and kept under close guard until Henry's death in 1189.

The marriage between Henry and Eleanor brought large French estates to the English king. English claims to these and other French lands led to many wars between the two nations.