Franco-Prussian War, 1870–71, a war between France and Germany. The opponents of France at the start of the war were an alliance of several confederated and independent German states led by Prussia. The Germans won the war quickly and overwhelmingly. As the Germans neared victory during the last days of the war, the various German states united under Prussian leadership to form a German nation. In France Emperor Napoleon III was overthrown and the Third Republic established. The Franco-Prussian War caused a great shift of political influence and permanently altered the balance of power in Europe.
The control of Jerusalem and conflicts between Islam and the Western world may read like topics from today's headlines. But they were also at the heart of the Crusades.
Cook, James (1728 - 1779), a British navigator. Captain Cook accurately charted vast regions of the South Pacific; provided a basis for England's claim to Australia and New Zealand; and developed a diet that prevented scurvy among seamen.