Franco-Prussian War, 1870–71, a war between France and Germany. The opponents of France at the start of the war were an alliance of several confederated and independent German states led by Prussia. The Germans won the war quickly and overwhelmingly. As the Germans neared victory during the last days of the war, the various German states united under Prussian leadership to form a German nation. In France Emperor Napoleon III was overthrown and the Third Republic established. The Franco-Prussian War caused a great shift of political influence and permanently altered the balance of power in Europe.
Renaissance, in a broad sense, the culturally fruitful period of transition from the medieval era into the beginning of modern civilization in Europe.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.