Great Rebellion, or English Civil War, a war fought in Great Britain, 1642–1652. In the first phase of the conflict, 1642–46, the forces of the English Parliament, aided by Scottish Presbyterians, defeated the Royalist army. In the second, 1648–52, Royalists and Presbyterian Puritans were defeated by the Independent Puritan forces of Oliver Cromwell. Charles I was beheaded and a new government, the Commonwealth, was created. The monarchy was restored in 1660, but royal authority was never again as strong as before the Great Rebellion.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.
The history of Europe is the story of many different peoples and cultures. Some peoples lagged behind, while others surged far ahead in the development of social, intellectual, and political institutions and ideas.