Great Rebellion, or English Civil War, a war fought in Great Britain, 1642–1652. In the first phase of the conflict, 1642–46, the forces of the English Parliament, aided by Scottish Presbyterians, defeated the Royalist army. In the second, 1648–52, Royalists and Presbyterian Puritans were defeated by the Independent Puritan forces of Oliver Cromwell. Charles I was beheaded and a new government, the Commonwealth, was created. The monarchy was restored in 1660, but royal authority was never again as strong as before the Great Rebellion.
The control of Jerusalem and conflicts between Islam and the Western world may read like topics from today's headlines. But they were also at the heart of the Crusades.
England's first known inhabitants were cave dwellers who hunted and fished and lived under Stone Age conditions until after 2000 B.C.