Great Rebellion, or English Civil War, a war fought in Great Britain, 1642–1652. In the first phase of the conflict, 1642–46, the forces of the English Parliament, aided by Scottish Presbyterians, defeated the Royalist army. In the second, 1648–52, Royalists and Presbyterian Puritans were defeated by the Independent Puritan forces of Oliver Cromwell. Charles I was beheaded and a new government, the Commonwealth, was created. The monarchy was restored in 1660, but royal authority was never again as strong as before the Great Rebellion.
Imagine a mother telling her thirsty child not to sip water, but to swig some much safer beer instead. Could this scenario have really happened in medieval times?
Renaissance, in a broad sense, the culturally fruitful period of transition from the medieval era into the beginning of modern civilization in Europe.