Commune of Paris, the name of two revolutionary regimes that arose at different times in Paris, France. The first was a committee of Paris revolutionaries who helped guide the French Revolution from 1789 to 1795. At the instigation of the Commune, a Paris mob seized the residence of Louis XVI on August 10, 1792, an event that led to the overthrow of the king.
The second Commune of Paris arose in 1871 after France had to sign a humiliating armistice in the Franco-Prussian War. On March 28, 1871, the National Guardsmen, who had been defending Paris, proclaimed Paris to be a commune, a self-governing body independent of the national government. The Commune was supported by the Parisians. After two months of siege, the French army captured Paris, and some 20,000 supporters of the Commune were killed.