Utrecht, Peace of, a series of treaties signed at the close of the War of the Spanish Succession. The peace conference opened at Utrecht, the Netherlands, in January, 1712, and was attended by representatives from all leading European nations. The principal treaties were signed in 1713 and were supplemented by others signed in 1714 and 1715.
Among the important treaties were those under which France recognized the Hanoverian right of succession in England, and Britain accepted Philip, of the House of Bourbon, as king of Spain. It was further agreed that Spain and France would never unite under a single crown. Great Britain received the Hudson Bay territory, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and St. Kitts from France, and Gibraltar and Minorca from Spain. Austria acquired the Spanish Netherlands, Sardinia, Naples, and Milan, marking the beginning of 150 years of Austrian domination in Italy.
The various nations signed commercial treaties granting one another certain trade privileges. Spain guaranteed to Great Britain a 30-year monopoly of the slave trade with Spanish colonies in America.