Peasants' War, or Peasants' Revolt, 1524–26, a rebellion in Austria and southern and central Germany. It resulted from the peasants' discontent with the high rents and fees for services charged by large landowners. Most of the peasants were supporters of Martin Luther. Radicals, including Anabaptists, used the rebellion to attempt to overthrow the nobility and the church hierarchy.

The rebellion consisted of widespread uprisings that were not centrally coordinated. It was put down by the nobles with great brutality. More than 100,000 peasants were killed. Luther repudiated the revolt and thereby lost popularity among the peasants. Lutheranism became a conservative religion, generally submissive to the German princes. The failure of the rebellion reinforced serfdom and plunged the peasants into deeper poverty.