Paris, Treaties of, various treaties of peace signed in Paris, France.
Treaty of 1259. Henry III of England and Louis IX of France ended a state of war between their countries that had lasted since 1201. The French had taken much of the territory in France that the English monarchs claimed by inheritance. By the treaty, which was signed in 1258 but not ratified until 1259, Henry abandoned his claim to Normandy and the domains of Maine, Anjou, Touraine, and Poitou in the lower Loire Valley. He kept a coastal strip of Aquitaine and Gascony, but as a vassal of the French king. The settlement lasted until the Hundred Years' War began in 1337.
Treaty of 1396. The Hundred Years' War, with its sporadic periods of actual fighting, had been going on for 59 years when this treaty between Richard II of England and Charles VI of France formally established a truce that lasted 19 years.
Treaty of 1763. This treaty concluded hostilities between some of the participants in the Seven Years' War. These were France and Spain on one side, and Great Britain and Portugal on the other. It also ended the American phase of the war, known as the French and Indian War. The treaty destroyed France's colonial empire and left Great Britain dominant in North America and India.
In North America, Great Britain received from France all of Canada and all of Louisiana east of the Mississippi except for New Orleans. France also gave up its claims to the region between the British Atlantic colonies and the Mississippi River. France kept St. Pierre and Miquelon islands off the Newfoundland coast, and fishing rights in the area. By an earlier treaty (the Treaty of Fontainebleau, November, 1762) New Orleans and western Louisiana had passed from France to Spain.
In the West Indies, France was permitted to keep Martinique, Guadeloupe, and St. Lucia. St. Vincent, Grenada, and Tobago were ceded to Great Britain. Spain now ceded Florida to Great Britain and in return received Manila and all territory in Cuba, including Havana, that the British had captured. Spain returned to Portugal captured territory north of the La Plata estuary in South America.
Great Britain received the French African possessions in Senegal, but returned Gorée. The treaty also gave official recognition to Britain's conquests in India, restoring only Pondichéry and Chandernagor to France.
Treaty of 1814, also known as the First Peace of Paris. It was drawn between France and the Allied Powers of Europe after the first abdication of Napoleon. The treaty showed great leniency to the restored French monarchy. France retained its boundaries of 1792, which included territory to the north and east gained during the wars. All French colonies were restored except Mauritius, St. Lucia, and Tobago, which were retained by Great Britain. France was not asked to pay indemnities. British annexation of Malta was recognized. Provision was made for Belgium to be united with Holland in an independent kingdom of the Netherlands, and for the German states to form a confederation. Holland ceded part of Guiana and the Province of the Cape of Good Hope to Great Britain.
Treaty of 1815, also known as the Second Peace of Paris. Concluded after the overthrow of Napoleon at Waterloo, the treaty took away France's territorial gains of the preceding year and largely restored the boundaries of 1790. France was forced to pay a huge indemnity, and to return the art treasures taken from other countries.