Breasted, James Henry (1865-1935), a United States Egyptologist, archeologist, and historian. He established and became director of the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago (1919). Under his guidance the institute became one of the world's most important centers for study of the ancient civilizations of the Middle East. Breasted led several expeditions to Egypt and the Middle East.

Breasted was born in Rockford, Illinois, and studied Oriental languages at Yale and the University of Berlin. In 1894 he began teaching at the University of Chicago. He was professor of Egyptology and Oriental history there from 1905 to 1933.

Breasted's works include: A History of Egypt (1905); Ancient Records of Egypt (5 volumes, 1906); Ancient Times: a History of the Early World (1916); The Conquest of Civilization (1926); and The Dawn of Conscience (1933).