Tuscarora Indians, a tribe of the Iroquoian language family. In 1600, there were about 5,000 Tuscaroras in what is now eastern North Carolina. In the so-called Tuscarora War, 1711–13, they fought settlers who were encroaching upon their lands. Defeated by the whites, many Tuscaroras migrated northward into Pennsylvania and New York, 1712–22, to join the kindred tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Five Nations. The Tuscaroras were considered the confederacy's sixth nation.

During the Revolutionary War, most Tuscaroras supported the Americans. After the war, the British gave land in what is now southern Ontario to Tuscaroras who supported the British. The Tuscaroras who remained in the United States were eventually settled on what is now the Tuscarora Reservation in Niagara County, New York. Today they live on or near these reservations.