Annapolis Convention, a meeting of states held at Annapolis, Maryland, September 11-14, 1786, to discuss regulation of interstate commerce. These discussions led to the Philadelphia convention of 1787 that drew up the U.S. Constitution. The Annapolis meeting was called as a result of a conference at Mount Vernon in 1785, at which commissioners from Maryland and Virginia came to an agreement regarding navigation on the Potomac River. These two states then invited delegates from all 13 states to Annapolis to discuss uniform regulation of commerce.

Only New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and Virginia were represented at the Annapolis Convention. (Representatives from Massachusetts and New Hampshire arrived after adjournment.) With only five states present, no action could be taken. However, the delegates discussed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including the central government's lack of power to regulate interstate commerce. At the urging of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, a resolution was adopted recommending a convention of the 13 states "to render the Constitution of the Federal government adequate to the exigencies of Union." Invitations were sent to each state, and Congress passed a supporting resolution.