Guilford Courthouse, Battle of, March 15, 1781, a battle of the American Revolution. It was fought five miles (8 km) north of present-day Greensboro, North Carolina. The British were commanded by Lord Cornwallis, the American patriots by Nathanael Greene. After an indecisive battle Greene retreated, but the British suffered 532 casualties, almost one-fourth of their force, and Cornwallis decided to abandon the Carolinas. The patriots had 263 casualties, and 1,000 militia fled to their homes. A national military park was established on the battlefield site in 1917.