Kitchener of Khartoum and of Broome, Horatio Herbert Kitchener, First Earl (1850-1916), a British army officer. He won distinction by reconquering the Sudan in 1898 and bringing the Boer War to a successful conclusion in 1902. In World War I, as secretary of state for war, Kitchener took the realistic view that the war would be a long one and built up a huge army. The creation of this mass army was the largest military effort in British history to that time and was a major contribution to the Allied victory. Although considered one of the greatest soldiers of his day, Kitchener was criticized for his harsh methods and his strict, unbending attitude.
Kitchener was born in Ireland, where his father was serving with the British army, and attended the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich. After service in Palestine and Cyprus, he was sent to Egypt in 1882. In 1885 he took part in the unsuccessful expedition to rescue General Charles George Gordon, who was trapped in Khartoum by rebel forces led by a Sudanese who claimed to be the Mahdi (Muslim messiah). In 1890 Kitchener became commander in chief of the Egyptian army. He organized the expedition that, in 1898, captured Khartoum and defeated Mahdi forces at Omdurman, winning back the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Kitchener was created baron in 1899 and was made governor general of the Sudan. Later that year he became chief of staff to Lord Roberts, commander in chief of the British forces in South Africa during the Boer War. Kitchener succeeded Roberts in 1900, stamped out guerrilla warfare, and secured final victory in 1902.
Kitchener was then made a viscount and took command of the British army in India. He was promoted to field marshal in 1909 and was consul general in Egypt, 1911-14. He was created earl in 1914. While on a mission to Russia, Kitchener was drowned when the cruiser Hampshire was sunk by a mine.