Lausanne Conference, 1922–23, an international meeting held at Lausanne, Switzerland, from November, 1922, to July, 1923. The conference was called to revise the Treaty of Sèvres (1920), under which the victorious Allies had forced Sultan Mohammed VI of Turkey to abolish his empire and divide large parts of Turkey itself between Russia and Greece. Mohammed lost control of the government, however, and the new government under Mustafa Kemal refused to recognize the treaty. The Greeks invaded Anatolia to enforce the treaty, but were defeated by the Turks. Fearing a Turkish invasion of the Balkans, the Allies called the Lausanne Conference.
Turkey, Great Britain, France, Japan, Italy, Bulgaria, Greece, and Yugoslavia participated. Two major agreements were reached:
- The Treaty of Lausanne, under which Turkey agreed to give up its colonies provided that Turkey itself remain whole and independent.
- The Straits Convention, which made the Dardanelles an unfortified international waterway. (The Montreux Conference of 1936 restored to the Turks the right to fortify the straits.)