Scapa Flow, flω', a sheltered body of water in Scotland's Orkney Islands. This stretch of sea, about 15 miles (24 km) long and 8 miles (13 km) wide, was a major British naval base in World Wars I and II. After the armistice in 1918 a large part of the German fleet, consisting of 77 surface vessels and 102 submarines, was interned at Scapa Flow by the victorious Allies. In June, 1919, caretaker German crews sank the vessels to prevent them from being divided among the Allied nations. In World War II, a German submarine penetrated British defenses at Scapa Flow in 1939 and sank the battleship Royal Oak.
Beatty of the North Sea and of Brooksby, David Beatty, First Earl (1871-1936), a British naval officer.
Lawrence, T. E. (Thomas Edward) (1888-1935), a British soldier and writer known as "Lawrence of Arabia." The Seven Pillars of Wisdom is his account of his adventures and ideas as leader of the Arabs in their successful revolt against Turkey in World War I.