Bethmann-Hollweg Theobald von (1856--1921), the chancellor (prime minister) of Germany, 1900--17. He was an advocate of reform and peace but was too weak-willed to exert much influence over German policy before World War I. In 1914 Bethmann-Hollweg tried to persuade the British ambassador to Germany that the 1839 treaty guaranteeing Belgium's neutrality was not worth fighting over, reportedly calling it "a scrap of paper." In 1916 he advocated a negotiated peace; the military forced him to resign the next year.
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Lawrence, T. E. (Thomas Edward) (1888-1935), a British soldier and writer known as "Lawrence of Arabia." The Seven Pillars of Wisdom is his account of his adventures and ideas as leader of the Arabs in their successful revolt against Turkey in World War I.