Saint-Germain, Treaty of, the peace treaty between Austria and the Allied Powers at the end of World War I. It was signed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, on September 10, 1919. Besides ending the war with Austria, the pact dismantled the Austrian (Hapsburg) Empire. The once powerful empire of some 116,000 square miles (300,000 km2) and 30,000,000 people was reduced to a small, landlocked republic of less than 32,400 square miles (83,900 km2), some 6,000,000 people, and few resources.
Under the treaty, Austria was required to:
- Recognize the independence of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Poland.
- Cede the bulk of the empire's territories to Italy, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Hungary, and Poland.
- Limit its army to 30,000 men and surrender its war vessels and military aircraft.
- Refrain from entering into political or commercial union with Germany.
- Pay reparations for 30 years.
- Guarantee the independence and integrity of racial, religious, and linguistic minorities within its borders.
The treaty was violated in 1936 when Austria began to build up its army. It was rendered worthless after Germany seized Austria in 1938.