Jodl, Alfred Gustav (1892?–1946), a German army officer. Jodl was chief of staff of the high command of the armed forces, 1938–45, rising to the rank of colonel general. He reported directly to Adolf Hitler and helped plan World War II strategy. On May 7, 1945, Jodl signed the German unconditional surrender to the Allies at Reims, France. He was found guilty of war crimes by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg, and was hanged.
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Goebbels, Joseph Paul (1897-1945), a German Nazi propagandist. As minister of propaganda in Adolf Hitler's Third Reich, 1933-45, he not only used the press, radio, and other forms of communication to serve the Nazi regime, but also molded German cultural life to that end.