Potsdam Conference, July 17 to August 2, 1945, the last meeting of heads of state of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain in World War II. It was held at Potsdam, near Berlin. The participants were President Harry S. Truman, Premier Joseph Stalin, and Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill, who was replaced, after a British election, by Clement R. Attlee. Germany had surrendered, and the conference provided for zones of occupation in Germany to be administered by the Allied Control Council of four powers (including France). Peace terms for Germany and its allies were to be prepared by the Council of Foreign Ministers, which included France and, later, China.

The United States and Great Britain called upon Japan to surrender under threat of total destruction. That this threat meant use of the atom bomb was not revealed. The Soviet Union agreed to enter the war against Japan, but this also was not announced. The Polish coalition government was recognized, leading toward Communist control of that country. Reparations, disarmament, and other occupation policies were stated.