Yamashita Tomoyuki, (1885–1946), a Japanese general. He was born in Kochi Prefecture and was educated at military schools in Japan and Germany. In 1939 he commanded a division in the war against China. In World War II, he led Japanese forces in the conquest of Malaya and Singapore. He was placed in charge of the Japanese defense of the Philippines in October, 1944, and surrendered to American forces in September, 1945. Yamashita was charged with being a war criminal, responsible for massacres of civilians and prisoners of war by troops under his command. Although the evidence was not conclusive that he knew of the massacres, he was convicted and hanged.