Did Genghis Khan Really Kill 1,748,000 People in One Hour?

By: Josh Clark  | 
Ghenghis Khan in combat
This 15th-century miniature shows Ghenghis Khan in combat. Found in the collection of Bibliothèque Nationale de France. by Fine Art Images/Heritage Images/Getty Images

Under Soviet rule, Mongols couldn't even utter Genghis Khan's name out loud, nor visit his home province. But since the collapse of communism in Mongolia in the 1990s, citizens have reclaimed the legacy of the person the New York Times referred to as "the original bad boy of history."

This resurgence in popularity has also made some people reconsider Genghis Khan. Was he a bloodthirsty heathen, or a fair and just statesman? Although his reign left behind no tangible artifacts — like architecture or art — does Khan's role as champion of diplomacy, religious tolerance and equal rights for women serve as legacy enough? And what of the incredible bloody legends that surround him?


Perhaps no other historical figure has as much death directly attributed to him as Genghis Khan. A quick glance at the many lists of his supposed deeds yields a recurring and startling attribution: Genghis Khan is said to have once killed 1,748,000 people in a single hour!

While Khan inarguably killed his fair share of people, it's impossible that he — or anyone else — personally ever took as many lives in such a short time (at least not without dropping a bomb). For Khan to have killed that many people in an hour, he would have had to take 29,133 lives per minute.

While this isn't possible, there's a fascinating story behind legend. And why such an oddly specific number? Find out in the next section.


The Truth About Nishapur

Genghis Khan Statue in Silver Casting
Genghis Khan is said to have killed 1,748,000 people in a single hour. Did he really? Amazing fact: no. Francesco Vaninetti Photo / Getty Images

The 1,748,000 refers to the estimated population in April 1221 of a Persian city called Nishapur [source: Hinson]. This city, located in what is now Iran, was a bustling cultural center during Khan's time. And during his campaign to the West, following his successful subduing of China, Nishapur was one of the cities his troops sacked.­

Genghis Khan (whose adopted name means "Universal Ruler" in Altaic, his native tongue) was something of a populist conqueror. He generally followed a self-imposed rule that those who surrendered to him were allowed to live. Common folk were often spared, while their rulers usually were put to death. The same fate met anyone else who dared resist.


In Nishapur, Khan's favorite son-in-law, Toquchar, was killed by an arrow shot by a Nishapuran. It's not entirely clear whether a revolt broke out after Khan's troops had already overtaken the city, or if the fateful event took place during an initial siege. Either way, this proved to be the death warrant for the inhabitants of the city [source: Lange].

Khan's daughter was heartbroken at the news of her husband's death and requested that every last person in Nishapur be killed. Khan's troops, led by his youngest son Tolui undertook the gruesome task. Women, children, infants, and even dogs and cats were all murdered. Worried that some of the inhabitants were wounded but still alive, Khan's daughter allegedly asked that each Nishapuran be beheaded, their skulls piled in pyramids. Ten days later, the pyramids were complete [source: Gabriel].

Exactly how many died at Nishapur during the siege is questionable, but it does appear that a great many people were killed and beheaded. There is no evidence that Genghis Khan was at the city when the massacre took place, however.

It's unclear why the legends say these events transpired in just one hour. And when the 1.75 million deaths became attributed directly to Khan is equally murky. Even more difficult to understand is how the idea made it on so many lists of amazing statistics. Regardless, a great many people died at the hands of Genghis Khan or his men. But in a strange, roundabout way, he put back more than he took. Thanks to his far-flung travels and his appetite for women, a 2003 study found that as many as 16 million people alive today — or about 0.5 percent of the global population — are descendants of Khan [source: Zerjal, et al.].


Genghis Khan FAQ

What is Genghis Khan famous for?
Genghis Khan is the founder of the Mongol Empire. He is best known for uniting Mongolian nomadic tribes into a powerful empire that took on the Chinese Jin dynasty. Khan rose as an influential leader who reigned over everything between the Pacific Ocean and the Caspian Sea.
How did Genghis Khan die?
Genghis Khan may have died from long-lasting injuries from a fall off his horse the previous year, but there are other hypotheses and stories about his death as well.
What percent of the world is related to Genghis Khan?
According to the data gathered from studying the Y-chromosome gene by international geneticists, 8 percent of the dwellers of the Mongol empire are descendants of Genghis Khan. This translated to about 0.5 percent of the world’s male population or 16 million men today.
Did Genghis Khan kill 1,748,000 in one hour?
No, it’s not humanly possible for one man to kill 1,748,000 people in one hour, as this translated to 29,133 lives per minute.
What was Genghis Khan’s early life like?
Genghis Khan was fearless from an early age. When he was just nine years old, his father was killed and he was kidnapped, escaping only by killing his half-brother. He later amassed his own followers to create a huge army when he was just a teenager.
Why does Genghis Khan have so many descendants?
Genghis Khan was a notorious empire-builder who impregnated many women from the places he conquered over the course of his lifetime.
Did Genghis Khan have any daughters?
Statistically, he would’ve had daughters, but the only way to find this out would be through a DNA test of his remains, which isn't possible.

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More Great Links

  • Lange, Brenda. "Genghis Khan." (March 30, 2022) https://www.google.com/books/edition/Genghis_Khan/Yclu5Rw-3WUC?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=nishapur+genghis+khan&pg=PA66&printsec=frontcover
  • Hinson, John. "100 (More) Stories: The Lesser Known History of Humanity" March 30, 2022 https://www.google.com/books/edition/100_More_Stories_The_Lesser_Known_Histor/U9t9DwAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=nishapur+population+genghis+khan&pg=PA27&printsec=frontcover
  • Pocha, Jehangir S. "Mongolia sees Genghis Khan's good side." New York Times. May 10, 2005. (March 30, 2022) https://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/10/world/asia/mongolia-sees-genghis-khans-good-side.html
  • Pressley Montes, Sue Anne. "Genghis Khan Statue Sought." The Washington Post. October 6, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/05/AR2006100501534.html
  • Williams, F. Leon. "The Savage Fury: The Life of Genghis Khan." Trafford Publishing. 2005. http://books.google.com/books?id=pciCKJNf-aAC&pg=PA515&lpg=PA515&dq=nishapur+genghis+khan&source=web&ots=842xwoRpYQ&sig=hGGv1hoM7JIeczWrh9_exCtIwQs#PPA526,M1
  • Zerjal, Tatiana, et al. "The genetic legacy of the Mongols." American Journal of Human Genetics. 2003. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1180246/
  • "Genghis Khan and the Mongols." Macro History.http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h11mon.htm