10 Medieval Torture Devices


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How Jim Crow Shaped America

How Jim Crow Shaped America

Jim Crow was about much more than laws enacted to suppress blacks. It was about a system involving politics, economics, social and cultural practices.


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  • Beccaria, Cesare. Of Crimes and Punishments. (Ingraham, Edward D., trans.) Philip H. Nicklin, Philadelphia, 1819 (original work published in 1764).
  • Farrington, Karen. History of Punishment and Torture. Octopus Publishing Group, 2000.
  • Gallonio, Antonio. Trattato Degli Instrumenti di Delle Varie Maniere di Martirizare (Tortures and Torments of the Christian Martyrs). ( A. R. Allinson, trans.) The Fortune Press, Paris, 1903 (original work published in 1605).
  • Goldberg, Enid A. & Itzkowitz, Norman. Tomas de Torquemada: Architect of Torture During the Spanish Inquisition. Franklin Watts, 2007.
  • Hunt, Lynn. Inventing Human Rights. W.W. Norton and Company. 2007.
  • Innes, Brian. The History of Torture. St. Martin's Press, 1998.
  • Kellaway, Jean. The History of Torture and Execution. Mercury Books, 2003.
  • Medieval Times & Castles. "The Breast Ripper."http://www.medievality.com/breast-ripper.html
  • Medieval Times & Castles. "The Pear of Anguish."http://www.medievality.com/pear-of-anguish.html
  • Parry, L.A. The History of Torture in England. Patterson Smith, 1975.