The Freedmen's Bureau
At first, the United States tried to help newly freed slaves. The horrible conditions in the contraband camps prompted the creation of societies and groups that provided clothing, medicine and financial aid to the newly freed. Out of these groups evolved the Freedmen's Bureau: "established in the War Department by an act of March 3, 1865. The Bureau supervised all relief and educational activities relating to refugees and freedmen, including issuing rations, clothing and medicine. The Bureau also assumed custody of confiscated lands or property in the former Confederate States, border states, District of Columbia, and Indian Territory" [source: Freedmen's Bureau].
One of the bureau's tasks was enforcing the division of plantations. Some of the land was supposed to be directly sold to former slaves, other parcels were to be supervised by Northerners, and still others were returned to their owners in exchange for signed oaths of allegiance. Treatment of blacks on these plantations ranged from "benign to brutal paternalism" [source: McPherson].
But with Northern apathy and racist attitudes, as well as a crippled Southern economy, black rights to citizenship were quickly suppressed. Legislation authorizing the Freedmen's Bureau was allowed to lapse in 1872. Sharecropping -- former slaves "sharing" 50 percent of earnings with former masters to work the land -- kept many freed men in debt and tied to the plantation in de facto slavery.
Related How Stuff Works Articles
More Great Links
- American Treasures of the Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trt028.html
- Denney, Robert E. "The Civil War Years." Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 1992.
- "Emancipation Proclamation." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 6 Feb. 2008. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9032498
- Ferguson, Andrew. "Land of Lincoln: Adventures in Abe's America."Atlantic Monthly Press, 2007.
- Freedman's Bureau. http://freedmensbureau.com/
- "Glory." Dir. Edward Zwick. Perf. Matthew Broderick, Denzel Washington, Cary Elwes, Morgan Freeman, Jihmi Kennedy, Andre Braugher. TriStar Pictures, 1989.
- Guelzo, Allen C. "Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America." Simon & Schuster. 2004.
- Juneteenth.com. http://www.juneteenth.com/history.htm
- Kachun, Mitch. "Festivals of Freedom." University of Massachusetts Press. 2003.
- Kennett, Lee. "Sherman: A Soldier's Life." HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. 2001.
- The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/almintr.html
- McPherson, James M. "Battle Cry of Freedom." Oxford University Press, Inc.: 1988.
- National Underground Railroad Freedom Center. http://www.freedomcenter.org
- PBS' "American Experience: Reconstruction, The Second Civil War." http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/reconstruction/40acres/ps_so15.html
- Robinson, Armstead L. "Bitter Fruits of Bondage: The Demise of Slavery and the Collapse of the Confederacy, 1861 - 1865." University of Virginia Press. 2005.
- Sheehan-Dean, Aaron, editor. "Struggle for a Vast Future." Osprey Publishing, 2006.