World War I absolutely devastated France. Of the roughly 8.5 million French soldiers mobilized in 1914 to fight Germany and the other Central Powers, more than 6 million became casualties, either killed, wounded or declared missing during four years of grueling trench warfare.
In the wake of that catastrophic war, the French government vowed to protect its vulnerable northeast border with Germany from any future attacks. With fresh memories of fighting and living in squalid, open-air trenches, the French spent a decade building a 300-mile (482-kilometer) series of underground fortifications that would be both impenetrable and comfortable to live in. Behind an imposing line of pop-up gun turrets, tank traps and 12-foot (3.6-meter) concrete walls were fully equipped subterranean military bases complete with mess halls, hospitals, recreation facilities and railway lines.
These impressive fortifications — 142 large artillery forts called ouvrages or "works," 352 fortified gun emplacements called "casemates," and 5,000 smaller bunkers and pillboxes — became known as the Maginot Line, named after the French politician André Maginot (pronounced Mah-ji-noh). The line wasn't Maginot's idea alone, but he helped push the ambitious, multimillion-franc project through parliament.
Despite its monumental concrete glory, which was the pride of interwar France, the Maginot Line ultimately wasn't able to stop Adolf Hitler's Nazi war machine from quickly overwhelming and occupying France in World War II. But does that mean that the Maginot Line was the colossal blunder that many historians have made it out to be?
Not according to Robert Kirchubel, a military historian with the FORCES Initiative at Purdue University.
"The Maginot Line was meant to stop a World War I-style attack of infantry and artillery, and it did what it was supposed to do," says Kirchubel, who's written multiple books on World War II military campaigns. The problem was that Hitler and his generals abandoned the "static" style of WWI fighting for a far more mobile blitzkrieg attack that punched a hole into France through Belgium and the Netherlands. "That's the part that fell apart for the Allies."
A Love of Fortresses
The Maginot Line was the brainchild of Marshal Joseph Joffre, a French WWI general, but it was hardly a new idea. The French had been building state-of-the-art fortresses and fortified cities along the German border for centuries.
"That's just what the French did," says Kirchubel. "The Maginot Line fit perfectly with this kind of thinking."
In the 17th century, from his luxurious palace at Versailles, Louis XIV oversaw the construction of citadels and fortresses meant to mark and protect the Sun King's territory. The genius behind these innovative fortifications was Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, who designed dozens of strongholds, including the magnificent fortified town of Neuf-Brisach in the contested Alsace-Lorraine region bordering Germany.
Fortress construction in France continued through the 19th century. After a humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the French built a ring of 19 heavily fortified military bases around the ancient city of Verdun in northeastern France near the borders with Germany, Luxembourg and Belgium. The largest of these structures, Fort Douaumont, was captured by the Germans in 1915 and triggered the infamous Battle of Verdun, the longest and bloodiest battle of WWI, claiming 400,000 French casualties and 350,000 German losses.
"With the Maginot Line, Joffre's idea was to take these fortifications that France had had for 200 years and bring them into the mid-20th century," says Kirchubel.
Constructing an Unbreakable Wall of Defense
The Maginot Line took 10 years to build, starting in 1929. By the eve of WWII, the French had constructed a string of fortifications stretching from the Swiss Alps to the English Channel, but the heaviest defenses were along the 280-mile (450-kilometer) border with Germany.
The Germany-facing section of the Maginot Line presented a string of obstacles, traps and artillery forts that ran 16 miles (25 kilometers) deep in places. An advancing German army would first be spotted by camouflaged observation points hugging the German border. The enemy's position would be communicated to a cluster of 78 fire control stations that coordinated the French defense from hilltop outposts.
The fire control stations would give orders to the hundreds of anti-tank and heavy artillery positions that could pop out of the ground and fire from armored turrets. Behind them were minefields and tank traps made from row after row of porcupine-like iron girders that would cripple armored vehicles. French engineers even constructed emergency dams and levees that could flood the surrounding fields to further slow the German attack.
The last line of defense was the Maginot Line's massive ouvrages, each large enough to hold 500 to 1,000 permanent troops. These colossal concrete "works" packed heavy firepower and were connected to nearby stations by underground rail lines to shuttle men, weapons and supplies. While the accommodations weren't luxurious, the barracks and mess halls were a tremendous improvement over the mud, freezing cold and disease of WWI trenches.
Planning for the Wrong Kind of War
When Joffre, Maginot and others conceived of the Maginot Line, Germany was under tight military restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles.
"The Maginot Line would have done just fine against a German army with no tanks, airplanes or heavy artillery," says Kirchubel, all of which were banned inside Germany after WWI.
But when Hitler and the Nazis rose to power in the early 1930s, they quickly backed out of the Treaty of Versailles and began equipping for a much different kind of war. While the Germans built a fleet of bombers and armored vehicles for their mobile blitzkrieg strategy, the French were putting the finishing touches on their very large and static underground fortresses.
"Maginot Line" has acquired a secondary meaning: a defensive barrier or strategy that inspires a false sense of security, according to Merriam-Webster. But this may not be a fair characterization.
Keep in mind, says Kirchubel, that the French didn't believe that the Maginot Line alone could win another war with Germany. The heavy fortifications were designed to block the most direct line of attack into France and avoid repeating what happened in WWI, when the German forces occupied large swaths of the strategically important Alsace-Lorraine region.
"Maginot and these other guys weren't dumb," says Kirchubel. "The Maginot Line was never meant to fight the war by itself. It was part of a bigger plan to force a German attack through Belgium. When the bigger plan went to crap, the Maginot Line went along with it."
The Nazis' End-run Around the Maginot Line
By the time Germany invaded Poland in 1939, it was clear to French military leaders that they had greatly underestimated the speed and ruthless efficiency of the German blitzkrieg. But it was too late to reorganize the entire French military in a matter of months. The French strategy was already set in millions of cubic feet of concrete.
The Nazis knew that the heart of the Maginot Line was nearly impenetrable, so they feinted attacks along the heavily fortified border while they planned for their massive 1940 invasion of France through the Netherlands and Belgium. The boldest and most pivotal German line of attack ran through the dense Ardennes Forest in Belgium, which both the French and the other Allies had dismissed as impassable.
The thick-walled forts and casemates of the Maginot Line withstood direct hits from German bombers as they were designed to do, but the real action happened far away from that solid line of defense. By the time the Germans crossed into French soil through Belgium, the fight was all but over.
"The French were beaten emotionally and spiritually," says Kirchubel. "They cashed in their chips. They fought for four years in WWI, but were done in a week in WWII." Just six weeks after Hitler began his land invasion of the country, France surrendered to Germany.