Guelphs and Ghibellines, two rival groups in medieval Italian politics. (For origin of the names, When Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman emperor, invaded northern Italy in 1154, his Italian supporters became known as Ghibellines.
WHAT'S INSIDE: EUROPE
- Battles & Revolutions
- Documents & Treaties
- Former Empires
- History by Country
- Middle Ages
Renaissance, in a broad sense, the culturally fruitful period of transition from the medieval era into the beginning of modern civilization in Europe.
Imagine a mother telling her thirsty child not to sip water, but to swig some much safer beer instead. Could this scenario have really happened in medieval times?