Pepin the Short, or Pepin III (714 - 768), king of the Franks, 751 - 68. Pepin and his brother Carloman became the most powerful lords of the Frankish kingdom after the death of their father, Charles Martel, in 741.
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The control of Jerusalem and conflicts between Islam and the Western world may read like topics from today's headlines. But they were also at the heart of the Crusades.
Renaissance, in a broad sense, the culturally fruitful period of transition from the medieval era into the beginning of modern civilization in Europe.