No matter how knowledgeable you are about European history, there's always more to learn! Get an in-depth look at European history in these articles.
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John (1167 - 1216), king of England, 1199 - 1216. Though clever and energetic, John was a poor ruler.

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Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.

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Cid, El , the popular name of Rodrigo (or Ruy) Diaz de Bivar (1040 - 1099), a Spanish national hero.

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