No matter how knowledgeable you are about European history, there's always more to learn! Get an in-depth look at European history in these articles.
Before the advent of gunpowder, enemy combatants used a powerful siege weapon called a trebuchet to forcefully launch projectiles — sometimes a large stone, a decapitated human head or a dead horse — at intended targets.
This brilliant, ruthless leader invaded England in 1066 and utterly changed the course of British history. In fact, he is the 'father' of every British monarch since.
The Druids were a class of Celtic-speaking purveyors of magical and religious practice who inhabited northwestern Europe around 2,000 years ago, but almost everything we know about them is from secondhand sources.
Many of the kings and queens of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty had a distinctive facial malady known as the Habsburg jaw. What caused it?
"I came, I saw, I conquered" encapsulates Julius Caesar's entire approach to ruling.
In 1919, 30 nations met to formulate the Treaty of Versailles, the treaty to end World War 1. The Allied nations wanted Germany to pay huge fines and take responsibility for starting the war. But were the terms too harsh?
The kilt is synonymous with Scotland but does that mean everyone with a Scottish surname has his or her own tartan?
In the 1970s, Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha ordered a massive building program of bunkers throughout the country, allegedly for protection. But their real purpose was to create fear and paranoia in its citizens.
Contaminated water, poor hygiene and the lack of sanitation caused most epidemics prior to the 20th century, but the plague doctors believed that germs were spread through the skin and nose and they costumed themselves accordingly.
People often use the words Holland and the Netherlands interchangeably when talking about the country in Western Europe. Are the two places the same?
Did you know that the iconic monument in the French capital city is topped by a secret apartment? But who built it, and why?
It may sound degrading to modern ears, but the groom of the stool, the person who helped the British king with his toileting duties, had an extremely prestigious position and was a close confidant of the monarch.
This very famous castle (and the inspiration for Cinderella's castle at Disneyland) was built for just one person, often called Mad King Ludwig. But was he really insane or just slandered by his enemies?
The famed London clock tower marks 160 years in silence as its historic restoration continues.
One of the most famous buildings in the world has burned. What did it take to build it in the first place?
What was behind the building of possibly the world's shortest border fence?
Britain has voted to leave the European Union, a group of 28 European countries. What does the EU do and why would countries want to leave — or join — it?
Ireland's severe drought has been alarming to some, but a new archaeological discovery has provided a silver lining.
There's a whale of a difference between the United Kingdom and Great Britain. But whatever you do, don't call someone from Scotland "English."
A mass grave from a medieval England village provides archaeological evidence that people wanted those lain to rest to stay that way.
Knight, in the Middle Ages, a warrior horseman. A knight was called Sir, and was usually of a noble or a genteel family.
The control of Jerusalem and conflicts between Islam and the Western world may read like topics from today's headlines. But they were also at the heart of the Crusades.
Free City , a town or city that governs itself and is independent, or largely independent, of the country in which it is located.
Goliard SongsLatin songs written from the 10th to early 13th centuries. They are among the earliest examples of Western secular music.
Guild, in medieval Europe, an economic and social association of men in the same business or craft.