Barebones Parliament, the governing body in England from July 4 to about December 11, 1653. After the Rump Parliament was dismissed in April, Oliver Cromwell and his provisional council invited Independent (congregational) churches to nominate men for a new assembly. From these, Cromwell's council selected 140 members—129 for England, 5 for Scotland, and 6 for Ireland.

The parliament passed some needed reforms but proposed extreme measures that aroused distrust and alarm. Moderates finally dissolved the parliament. A few days later, on December 16, Cromwell was proclaimed lord protector. The parliament was mockingly named after a radical member, Praise-God Barebone. It was also known as the Little or Nominated Parliament and sometimes as the Parliament of Saints.