It became evident with the fall of Rome -- even the largest empires can fall, and Europe saw many of them come and go over the centuries. Learn about European empires here.


Ulster, the northernmost of the four historic provinces of Ireland. Ulster was a kingdom of the Gaelic Celts before coming under English control in the 12th century.

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  • Anglo-Saxons


    Anglo-Saxons, the name given the Germanic, or Teutonic, peoples who invaded and occupied Britain beginning in the fifth century. See more »

  • British Empire

    British Empire

    British Empire, in history, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the lands and peoples under its control. See more »

  • Byzantine Empire

    Byzantine Empire

    Byzantine Empire, the great empire that had its origin in the founding of Constantinople by the Roman emperor Constantine in 330 A.D. See more »

  • Gaul


    Gaul (Latin: Gallia), an ancient region of western Europe. Gaul in Julius Caesar's time included most of northern Italy (Cisalpine Gaul), which was occupied by the Romans, and the vast extent of territory from the Rhine River to the Pyrenees called Transalpine Gaul (Gaul beyond the Alps), which was largely inhabited by Celts. See more »

  • Holy Roman Empire

    Holy Roman Empire

    Holy Roman Empire, a realm in medieval and early modern times that consisted primarily of Germany and that part of Italy governed by the German ruler. See more »

  • Huguenots


    Huguenotsthe common name of French Protestants during the Reformation. The name is still sometimes applied to French Protestants, especially French Calvinists. See more »

  • Norsemen


    Norsemen, or Northmen, a name given to Scandinavians of ancient and medieval times, especially the late eighth through mid-eleventh century. See more »

  • Prussia


    Prussia, formerly a state of Germany. From 1867, when Austria was excluded from the German confederation, until the end of World War II, Prussia was the largest of the German states, and dominated German affairs. See more »

  • Commonwealth and Protectorate

    Commonwealth and Protectorate

    Commonwealth and Protectorate, The, the republican government in England from the beheading of Charles I in 1649 to the restoration of the monarchy under Charles II in 1660. See more »

  • Etruscans


    Etruscans , an ancient people of Italy. The Etruscans inhabited a region known as Etruria, consisting of 12 city-states. See more »

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