Ruanda-Urundi, a former United Nations trust territory in east-central Africa, just south of the Equator. In 1962 it was divided into the independent nations of Rwanda and Burundi. Ruanda-Urundi consisted of the kingdoms of Ruanda (to the north) and Urundi. It was bounded by Uganda, Tanzania, Zaire, Lake Tanganyika, and Lake Kivu. The area of Ruanda-Urundi was 20,916 square miles (54,172 km2), a little less than that of West Virginia.

The kingdoms of Ruanda and Urundi were made a part of German East Africa prior to World War I. British and Belgian troops conquered German East Africa during the war. Ruanda-Urundi became a Belgian mandate under the League of Nations in 1923 and a United Nations trust territory, still under Belgian administration, in 1946.

As a result of elections held in 1961, Urundi chose to remain a monarchy while Ruanda voted to become a republic. In 1962 they became independent nations under the names Rwanda and Burundi.