The united kingdom of Great Britain was created in 1707 by the union of England and Scotland. (The title United Kingdom became the official name nearly one hundred years later.) and Scotland.

The union of England and Scotland occurred during Queen Anne's reign (1702–14). Britain and its allies in the Grand Alliance were engaged in a conflict with France called the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). The part of the war fought in North America is known as Queen Anne's War. The British commander in chief on the European continent, the Duke of Marlborough, won major military victories that led to the Peace of Utrecht. Britain gained Gibraltar and areas in Canada. The war established Great Britain as the greatest sea power in the world.