London, Treaties of, a number of international agreements reached at conferences in London, England, in the 19th and 20th centuries. Those of the 19th century include the following:

Treaties of 1827 and 1832

established Greece as an independent kingdom.

Treaties of 1831 and 1839

established the independence and neutrality of Belgium.

Treaty of 1840

ended the conflict between Turkey and Egypt and closed the Dardanelles to foreign (non-Turkish) warships.

Treaty of 1852

settled, temporarily, the boundaries of Denmark.

Treaty of 1867

guaranteed the independence of Luxembourg.

Treaty of 1871

modified the 1840 treaty by requiring the sultan of Turkey to open the Dardanelles to foreign warships if necessary to enforce terms of the Treaty of Paris, which ended the Crimean War in 1856. The effect of the 1871 treaty was to permit British ships to enter while banning Russian ships. The treaty prevented Russia's Black Sea fleet from participating in the Russo-Japanese War.

Important Treaties of London of the 20th century include:

Treaty of 1913

Turkey at the end of the first Balkan War (1912–13) gave up all territory in Europe except Constantinople (Istanbul) and its immediate area. Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (the latter two nations now included in Yugoslavia) were the chief beneficiaries, along with Albania, which became an independent nation. The major powers of Europe joined in the treaty.

Treaty of 1915

By this secret treaty Italy agreed to enter World War I on the side of the Allies. Great Britain, France, and Russia promised that after the war Italy would have areas held or claimed by Austria-Hungary and Balkan nations. These areas included the South Tyrol to the Brenner Pass, the Istrian peninsula, Dalmatia, and the Dodecanese Islands. Italy also was to share in any division of Germany's holdings in Africa. Most of the provisions of the treaty were fulfilled. After World War II, however, Italy yielded a portion of its World War I gains.

Treaty of 1930

The United States, Great Britain, and Japan agreed to limit the number of naval vessels that each would construct. Japan won important concessions, allowing it to strengthen its fleet in relation to the fleets of Britain and the United States. The treaty was to expire in 1936.

Treaty of 1936

The United States, Great Britain, and France agreed to limit the size of new naval ships and to restrict their firepower after the expiration of the 1930 treaty limiting the number of ships. The treaty, however, failed to limit naval growth because the two other principal naval powers, Japan and Italy, refused to sign, and the signatory countries eventually set aside the limits.