Plagues of Egypt, in the Bible, the succession of calamities that God inflicted on the Egyptians to win freedom for the Israelite slaves. When Moses asked Pharaoh to let his people go, the king merely increased their toil. The 10 plagues that followed were:

  • The Nile's waters turned into blood.
  • Frogs infested the land.
  • Lice (or gnats) throughout the land.
  • Great swarms of flies.
  • Murrain, or plague, on the cattle.
  • Boils on men and beasts.
  • Hail in all of Egypt.
  • Locusts darkened the land.
  • Three days of darkness throughout Egypt.
  • Death of the Egyptian firstborn.

After the death of the firstborn, Pharaoh told Moses his people could go. Later he changed his mind and pursued them. The story is told in Exodus 8–13.