Numidia, the name in ancient times for a region of North Africa. The heart of Numidia lay in what is now eastern Algeria. The Numidians, a Berber people, were originally nomadic horsemen who first aided, and later opposed, Carthage in the Punic Wars. Roman troops defeated the Numidians in the Jugurthine War (111–105 B.C.). After Numidia was conquered by the Romans in 46 B.C., the region prospered. Cirta (now Constantine) and Hippo, the see of Saint Augustine, were the main cities. Numidia fell successively under Vandal and Byzantine rule before the Arabs conquered it in the seventh century A.D.
Caesar, a title that came from the name of a Roman family. The first important member of the family was the soldier and statesman Gaius Julius Caesar.
Rome and the Roman Empire, the most powerful state of the ancient world. It grew from an Italian village to a city-state and into an organization that ruled the shores of the Mediterranean and much of western Europe.