Assyria, one of the great empires of the ancient world, located in western Asia. Assyria originally encompassed only the foothill region between the Tigris River and the Zagros Mountains (now northern Iraq). At the height of its power, in the seventh century B.C., the Assyrian empire stretched from Urartu (later Armenia) in the north to Egypt in the south, and from the Persian Gulf on the east to the Mediterranean Sea on the west. Nineveh, on the upper Tigris, was its capital.
Babylonia, an ancient country that occupied the area of southwestern Asia that is now Iraq.
Petra, an ancient city in what is now southwestern Jordan, 115 miles (185 km) south-southwest of Amman, was the ancient capital of the Nabataeans. Read more about this city carved into a sheer rock face.