Lepanto, Battle of, 1571, a naval battle fought between Turks and Christians. It took place near the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth off the coast of Lepanto (Návpaktos), Greece. It was the last major engagement fought with galleys. The battle was part of an effort to protect Europe from domination by the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire. A Turkish attack on Cyprus had caused Pope Pius V to form an alliance called the Holy League. The League's fleet, consisting chiefly of Venetian and Spanish vessels and commanded by Don John of Austria, met the Turks at Lepanto. The Turkish fleet was virtually annihilated, while Christian losses were comparatively small. The Christians failed to follow up their victory, and the Turks remained strong in the eastern Mediterranean. However, the threat of Muslim domination of the entire Mediterranean was averted.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.
Cid, El , the popular name of Rodrigo (or Ruy) Diaz de Bivar (1040 - 1099), a Spanish national hero.