Battle of the Nations, or Battle of Leipzig, October 16–18, 1813. the allied victory that marked the end of Napoleon's military domination of Europe. It was fought at Leipzig, in eastern Germany, and took its name from the fact that troops from nearly all the leading nations of Europe took part. Some 500,000 men were involved in the battle. The French lost 38,000 killed and wounded, the allies 54,000. Six French generals were killed, 12 wounded, and 36 captured. The defeat forced Napoleon to retreat westward across Germany back to France. One of the prominent allied commanders was the 71-year-old Marshal Blächer of Prussia.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.
The history of Europe is the story of many different peoples and cultures. Some peoples lagged behind, while others surged far ahead in the development of social, intellectual, and political institutions and ideas.