Cavalier, in English history, one of the supporters of Charles I in the English Civil War that began in 1642. The Cavaliers, or Royalists, opposed the Parliamentarians, who were called Roundheads because most of them wore their hair cropped close to their heads. Cavalier, originally a term for an armed horseman, had come to mean a high-spirited military man or gallant. The Parliamentarians, most of whom were Puritans, applied the term to the Royalists in disapproval of their dress and hairstyle, which the Puritans thought too frivolous. When the Cavaliers gained power in 1660, they took the name as a title of honor. The first parliament of Charles II, 1661--79, was called the Cavalier Parliament. In 1679, Cavaliers began to be called Tories.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.
The history of Europe is the story of many different peoples and cultures. Some peoples lagged behind, while others surged far ahead in the development of social, intellectual, and political institutions and ideas.