The Illyrians, an Indo-European people, settled the Adriatic shore (the Dalmatian coast) about the 12th century B.C. One of the Illyrian tribes was the Albani, from whom Albania takes its name. There were Greek colonies in the southern part of the country. In the fourth century B.C. the region was conquered by the Macedonians, and during the second and first centuries it was annexed by Rome. When in 395 A.D. the Roman Empire was divided, the new boundary placed some of the Illyrians in the western (Roman) division and the rest in the eastern (Byzantine) division.
The control of Jerusalem and conflicts between Islam and the Western world may read like topics from today's headlines. But they were also at the heart of the Crusades.
The history of Europe is the story of many different peoples and cultures. Some peoples lagged behind, while others surged far ahead in the development of social, intellectual, and political institutions and ideas.