Sèvres, Treaty of, an agreement signed August 10, 1920, at Sèvres, France, by the victorious Allies of World War I and the defeated Ottoman (Turkish) Empire. The harsh provisions of the treaty, which called for surrendering parts of Turkey as well as giving up claims to all non-Turkish lands, were a factor leading to the overthrow of the government by Turkish nationalists. The nationalists under Mustafa Kemal refused to recognize the treaty. They drove Greek occupation forces from Turkish soil and succeeded in obtaining a treaty more favorable to Turkey, the treaty of Lausanne (1923).
Cook, James (1728 - 1779), a British navigator. Captain Cook accurately charted vast regions of the South Pacific; provided a basis for England's claim to Australia and New Zealand; and developed a diet that prevented scurvy among seamen.
The history of Europe is the story of many different peoples and cultures. Some peoples lagged behind, while others surged far ahead in the development of social, intellectual, and political institutions and ideas.