Sèvres, Treaty of, an agreement signed August 10, 1920, at Sèvres, France, by the victorious Allies of World War I and the defeated Ottoman (Turkish) Empire. The harsh provisions of the treaty, which called for surrendering parts of Turkey as well as giving up claims to all non-Turkish lands, were a factor leading to the overthrow of the government by Turkish nationalists. The nationalists under Mustafa Kemal refused to recognize the treaty. They drove Greek occupation forces from Turkish soil and succeeded in obtaining a treaty more favorable to Turkey, the treaty of Lausanne (1923).
The control of Jerusalem and conflicts between Islam and the Western world may read like topics from today's headlines. But they were also at the heart of the Crusades.
Torture was a very popular form of punishment in the Middle Ages, but it also served as a social deterrent and as entertainment for the masses. These 10 devices show just how creative torturers became with their tools as a result.