History of Argentina. Descendants of ancient Asian migrants reached what is now Argentina some 8,000 years ago; these were the ancestors of the Indians. When European exploration of South America began in the 16th century A.D., there were some 300,000 nomadic Indians in the region. Compared with their neighbors to the north, they were poor and culturally undeveloped.

Important dates in Argentina
1580 Spaniards established Buenos Aires.
1776 Spain created the Viceroyalty of La Plata.
1810 Buenos Aires formed an independent government.
1816 Argentina declared its independence from Spain.
1853 Argentina adopted a federal Constitution.
1912 The Saenz Pena Law reformed national elections.
1930 Army officers overthrew the elected government.
1943 Juan Peron began his rise to power.
1955 A military revolt overthrew the Peron dictatorship. Peron fled the country.
1973 Peron returned to Argentina and was elected president.
1974 Peron died. His third wife, Isabel, became president.
1976 Military leaders removed Isabel Peron from office.
1982 Argentina lost a war with the United Kingdom over control of the Falkland Islands.
1983 Civilian rule was restored following free elections.